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Small-Scale Generation:Issues in Standardizing Power Purchase Agreements

Small-Scale Generation:Issues in Standardizing Power Purchase Agreements

Programs to attract investment in small-scale electricity generation, often powered by renewable energy sources, have become increasingly common in the developing world as governments seek to both expand access to electricity and improve sustainability. A valuable tool for such programs is a well-crafted, standardized power purchase agreement, which can reduce transaction costs for generators and

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Understanding the Interactions between Emissions Trading Systems and Renewable Energy Standards Using a Multi-Regional CGE Model of China

Many countries have introduced policy measures, such as carbon pricing, greenhouse gas offsetting mechanisms, renewable energy standards, and energy efficiency improvements, to achieve their climate change mitigation targets. However, in many instances, these measures overlap in ways that may dilute each policy’s greenhouse gas reduction potential. This study examines how a renewable energy standard in


Poverty-Specific Purchasing Power Parities in Africa

The paper revisits the issue of poverty-specific purchasing power parities (PPPs), using the most recent (2011) International Comparison Program (ICP) results. The World Bank’s global poverty count uses a common international poverty line—currently $1.90 at 2011 international prices—based on the ICP PPPs for consumption. The use of these PPPs is often criticized for two reasons.

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Development of Low-Carbon Energy Supply System in Romania

Despite the declining trends in total energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, energy intensity, and emission intensity over the past two decades, Romania still emits more greenhouse gas per unit of output than many other members of the European Union. The country is looking for further greening of its energy supply system to achieve the clean

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Long-Term Energy Demand Forecasting in Romania

This study develops an end-use energy demand analysis model for Romania to project energy demand by sector and end-use for 2015–50. The study finds that Romania’s energy demand in 2050 would be 34 percent higher than the level in 2013. The industry sector would be the largest final energy-consuming sector, surpassing the residential sector from

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Assessment of Net Mitigation in the Context of International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control Mechanisms

This paper discusses the scope for market mechanisms, already established for greenhouse gas mitigation in Annex 1 countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol, for implementing “net mitigation,” defined here as mitigation beyond Annex 1 countries’ formal mitigation requirements under the Kyoto Protocol. Such market mechanisms could be useful for establishing and extending greenhouse gas mitigation

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A Quarter Century Effort Yet to Come of Age: A Survey of Power Sector Reforms in Developing Countries

It has been more than two decades since the widespread initiation of global power sector reforms and restructuring. However, empirical evidence on the intended microeconomic, macroeconomic, and quality-related impacts of reforms across developing countries is lacking. This paper comprehensively reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on the linkages between power sector reforms, economic and technical


Pathways toward Zero-Carbon Electricity Required for Climate Stabilization

This paper covers three policy-relevant aspects of the carbon content of electricity that are well established among integrated assessment models but under-discussed in the policy debate. First, climate stabilization at any level from 2 to 3°C requires electricity to be almost carbon-free by the end of the century. As such, the question for policy makers

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